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# how to reduce uncertainty in data

how to reduce uncertainty in data

Like all information, data is a means to reduce uncertainty. Of course we know the more we sample, the better our estimate. Notice the diminishing reduction in uncertainty. When you have uncertainty over a range of different values, taking the average (arithmetic mean) can serve as a reasonable estimate. At Equifax, we actively pursue data perfection by looking at ways to reduce information asymmetry — the imbalance of information acquired from parties or sources — in the data used for decision making. It is one of the only communication theories that specifically looks into the initial interaction between people prior to the actual communication process. You’ve noticed in your city that gasoline prices often jump up by large amounts on Wednesdays, and only gradually come back down over the weekend. gives us the ability to make predictive choices each day. In other words, people seem to naturally want to gather data and keep records of the things measured. The three cases above also show that analytics can significantly change the profitability of the organisation. However, what’s most impressive is the greatest reduction in uncertainty actually came from the first sample. Data analytics is important for businesses because it enables them to make decisions about how they are performing, how their customers are using their products, and how they can better serve their customers in the future. What are your odds of guessing the majority color correctly now? This is an important feature of the statistical calculation of error associated with scientific data – as you increase the number of measurements of a value, you decrease the uncertainty and increase the confidence associated with the approximation of the value. Using Data to Gain Clarity and Reduce Uncertainty Relevance and affordability are paramount aspects of retaining association members and engaging prospects. The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, British India: An Era of Economic Uncertainty, Microsoft to Release Software Kit for Voters to Track Ballots. When we compare data, we notice patterns that can help us make inferences about things we don’t know, things we can’t ever know directly. Let’s say you’re building a model that helps doctors decide on the preferred treatment for patients Isn’t every scientist a data scientist? Uncertainty in energy estimates can be significantly reduced by on-site monitoring programs that apply best practices to reduce uncertainty in … By removing bias, we reduce the uncertainty associated with our comparisons. There is now a 95% chance the true contamination rate is anywhere between ~0% and 17% given that none of the 15 sampled fish were infected. Uncertainty, action and competence: Some alternative to omniscience in complex problem-solving. ), Uncertainty: Behavioral and social dimensions (pp. Specify the Process and Equation. Data aids us to make better guesses about what is most likely to happen in the future by using patterns we notice in the data. Notice how our uncertainty (red region) reduces after every sample. Choose between fixed options (like which medicine to take) 3. As you will see in the following three examples, the data for analytics to reduce internal uncertainty is available. That said however, does our net increase in the certainty of our estimate grow or diminish as we sample more and more fish? We do this in our everyday lives. Will explain important aspects in precise measurement and reliable data; … us is nothing new. uncertainty by producing information as well. Quantitative methods to address uncertainty include non-probabilistic approaches such as sensitivity analysis and probabilistic methods such as Monte Carlo analysis. The uncertainty reduction theory, also known as initial interaction theory, developed in 1975 by Charles Berger and Richard Calabrese, is a communication theory from the post-positivist tradition. Make learning your daily ritual. Every piece of information we produce reduces uncertainty a little bit. The chart to the left reflects the reduction in our HDI after each subsequent sample. After our first sample our HDI range dropped by 17% from from 95% to 78%. In order to reduce uncertainty, businesses should adhere to a plan and a vision, create a system, and motivate their staff. Unlike variability, uncertainty can be often be reduced by collecting more and better data (i.e., quantitative methods). It is most often already available within the company and may just need preparation. We can make better choices when we have more information. Instead, you decide to randomly sample a several fish and observe whether they’re contaminated? Specific solutions or innovations respondents cited to reduce uncertainty across the supply chain include expanded use of ERP data and capabilities as well as updating and implementing software tools and techniques such as warehouse management systems, transportation management systems, supplier relationship management, and software as a service. The government invests billions of dollars a year into collecting data. In fact, the title, data scientists, is a bit redundant; what exactly is the other type of scientist? But that’s why we have data scientists, right? In many cases, the value of data, and thereby information, is greatest early when you know little, if anything about something. In an era driven by technology, data can help leaders guide their organizations … To make matters worse, the buzz of Big Data has altered our expectations to render small data as useless, uninformative, and quite frankly boring. Learn the Basics State uncertainty in its proper form. In S. Fiddle (Ed. You can actually monetize the value using bayesian statistical frameworks. Verato Auto-Steward can not only automate the resolution of "potential duplicate record" tasks – it can also reduce the uncertainty associated with your data stewardship program. By the time we sampled the 15th fish, our HDI dropped to 17% (over 80% reduction). The webinar will explain the main aspects of measurement uncertainty along the complete force measurement chain – from real sensor to digital data stream. avg= 72cm+77cm+82cm+86cm+88cm 5 =81cm The range,uncertainty and uncertainty in the mean for Data Set 1 are then: !=88cm−72cm=16cm ∆!=! Profiling findings should be shared with data consumers, not only to confirm whether data meets expectations and to document differences from expectations, but also to further clarify those expectations. to quantify this uncertainty, but data sampling plans have not yet been provided to reduce parameter uncertainty in a way that eﬁectively reduces uncertainty about mean performance. This is easy to do in Excel with the AVERAGE function. Look for a signal (like when to evacuate in a hurricane) 2. Learn more about the nature of uncertainty. The two approaches for estimating the uncertainty model under heteroscedastic conditions were applied to a real data set consisting of measurements taken at 10 different concentration levels, ranging from low (1 ppm) to high (1000 ppm) concentrations of an analyte (Paladium): 1, … Uncertainty: What should I put on inventory. We can solve this analytically by computing the opposite question — the probability that the true median does not fall between our highest or lowest value. Below reflects the results for the first 9 samples. When faced with uncertainty, we should modify our decision-making process by researching all our options, forming a clear picture of where the uncertainly lies, and maintaining a clear vision of goals and values. This is especially true when it comes to dealing with uncertainty. For instance, a 95% HDI region means every value inside the HDI has higher probability density than any value outside the HDI. Let's say you're measuring a stick that falls … There can be big payoffs to reducing Learn more about turning uncertainty into risk. Beta Distribution: The beta distribution is a neat continuous distribution that we will use to represent our probabilities of fish that are contaminated. But you have to expend resources like time, effort, and money to gather information and process it into a usable form. Another way to reduce uncertainty is to remove measurement bias. This was the make-or-break economic event each year in their civilization, similar to the arrival of the monsoon in India. This, in turn, increases production and profits, reduces loss and waste, and generally improves people’s lives. The optimal solution is challenging, so we use asymptotic approximations to obtain closed-form results for sampling plans. 69-91). New York: Praeger. You don’t know what percent of a balls are blue or red (it can range anywhere between 0 and 100%). It’s not an intellectual leap to go from noticing patterns in data to creating models to help us make educated guesses. We should instead view ourselves as business or possibly decision scientists: observing and collecting data in order to inform our decisions. From the Lecture Series: The Economics of Uncertainty. People measure anything and everything. Your odds of guessing the majority color correctly in the urn is 1–1 (50% chance). This will help further reduce uncertainty in the data. What one can do here is progress up the green boxes by really just starting with typical software - rules-based logic with fact-based inputs. Hands-on real-world examples, research, tutorials, and cutting-edge techniques delivered Monday to Thursday. The smaller the range, the more certain we are. In essence, science is more about gathering data than about having data. Uncertainty: In our example, uncertainty will be defined as the range of our 95% HDI. Our brains are hardwired to make much of modern life difficult. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. benefit to information, however. For example, imagine you are calibrating a precision multimeter at 10 volts using a Multi-Function Calibrator. Patience. Sampling the 10th fish only reduced our uncertainty by 2%. Some types of information are cheap to produce, and other types are expensive. what is most likely to happen. We can use the following formula on the sample data above. Consider the Census Bureau, which keeps track of how many people live in the United States. Without any sampled fish (top left), our HDI range was 95%. All rights reserved. The relationship between and ˙ is as follows. I’ll demonstrate using 3 examples how the very act of gathering, especially where little, or no data is available, can be rewarding. Using this data as a Many companies thrive on the business of collecting and selling data. One of the main ways to create information is by measuring things. Finally, our 1st sample reduced our uncertainty 8.5x more than the uncertainty reduced by our 10th sample! This tendency to gather and organize data into patterns that assist It’s surprising sometimes to think about how advanced the science of astronomy was in many ancient civilizations. This webinar. Basic data profiling reduces risk because it reduces uncertainty (Hubbard, 2010). Kubernetes is deprecating Docker in the upcoming release, Python Alone Won’t Get You a Data Science Job. Despite significant uncertainty in most flow data, the flow series for these applications are often communicated and used without uncertainty information. tool, we can allocate resources to make decisions and better our lives about In order to reduce uncertainty, businesses should adhere to a plan and a vision, create a system, and motivate their staff. Before you dive in and begin calculating uncertainty, it is best to … Adopting an agile data security program based on a flexible, modular data protection model helps ensure adaptability and reduce data protection complexity. Lets establish a few things before continuing: Highest Density Interval (HDI): This measure indicates the set of points in a distribution that are most credible. Finally, our 1st sample reduced our uncertainty 8.5x more than the uncertainty reduced by our 10th sample! Notice the diminishing reduction in uncertainty. For example, say you live in a big Midwestern city and you make sure to fill your pickup truck with gas on Monday or Tuesday. Develop a sense of what is possible (like how to create a program to reduce poverty) For each of these scenarios, the audience must understand the degree of certainty associated with the data. At very least, this should include a summary of the vari… These concepts tie closely to the. The chart to the left reflects the reduction in our HDI after each subsequent sample. avg=! Gas prices don’t always behave this way, but this strategy can help you deal with the uncertainty caused by not knowing exactly when gas prices will rise or by how much. The private sector also gathers vast amounts of data. Let’s say there is an urn with 10,000 red and blue balls. by Steve Cubbage. Inventory is a buffer to withstand unforeseen variation (uncertainty) within supply and demand. In an era where data has become so prevalent, we’ve become too accustomed on solving problems where we feel we have “enough data” and dismiss the ones where we feel there is a lack of. This is a transcript from the video series The Economics of Uncertainty. Steve Cubbage: Can More Data Reduce Farming Uncertainty? Gathering accurate information about the movement of the stars and planets helped reduce uncertainty about when to plant the crops because ancient peoples noticed patterns in the changing seasons. Drawing a third sample will increase our chances by .25 to 75%! Once we get comfortable and continue to collect data/reduce uncertainty around how to make the right decisions, you can progress up the chain and add more modeling elements to it. Enormous industries have devoted huge amounts of resources to producing information. Such techniques for removing noisy objects during the analysis process can significantly enhance the performance of data analysis. However, we can also have all 3 samples above the median with an equal chance. There’s an opportunity to justify the value of gathering more data before making a decision especially if we know very little. Regardless of the type of information gathered or assessed, data Measures to handle uncertainty: Nowadays organisations are well positioned to handle the uncertainty and risks that arise from both internal and external environments. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus. Uncertainty in business is a situation in which the degree of risk, the magnitude of circumstances, conditions and consequences are not known or unpredictable. The data from one of our customers was especially intriguing. Facts and figures fascinate us; the media bombards us with factoids, and we eat them up. By our 5th sample, our chances have improved to 93.75%! Your data is likely helping your audience to: 1. Thus 1 minus the combined probability will compute the chance that the true mean falls in between. Quoting your uncertainty in the units of the original measurement – for example, 1.2 ± 0.1 g or 3.4 ± 0.2 cm – gives the “absolute” uncertainty. Let’s assume we sample just 3 values from an unknown distribution (parametric or non-parametric) of unknown size. When results are analysed it is important to consider the affects of uncertainty in subsequent calculations involving the measured quantities. The chart below shows our updated distribution after every sample. There are two common ways to state the uncertainty of a result: in terms of a ˙, like the standard deviation of the mean ˙m, or in terms of a percent or fractional uncertainty, for which we reserve the symbol (\epsilon"). obtain climate data. Even today, companies routinely perform test marketing, consult with focus groups, and conduct surveys before they commit to new products. average value): ! Let’s say you sample 1 and only 1 ball from the urn. 25 ≈4cm Data Set 2 yields the same average but has a much smaller range. According to sciencecouncil.org, a scientist is someone who: systematically gathers and uses research and evidence, making a hypothesis and testing it, to gain and share understanding and knowledge. By definition, there is a 50% chance a random sample falls below the median and thus the chance that all 3 samples fall below the median is .5³. In this commentary, we argue that proper analysis of uncertainty in river flow data can reduce costs and promote robust conclusions in water management applications. For Data Set 1, to find the best value, you calculate the mean (i.e. If you wanted to be 100% certain what percent of fish are infected, you’d need to sample every fish (an unreasonable and expensive feat). You have absolutely no idea what fraction of the fish (if any) have been infected. Take a look, A Full-Length Machine Learning Course in Python for Free, Noam Chomsky on the Future of Deep Learning, An end-to-end machine learning project with Python Pandas, Keras, Flask, Docker and Heroku, Ten Deep Learning Concepts You Should Know for Data Science Interviews. We can learn so much about an unknown distribution by with just 5 samples! Q: How should we change our decision making when uncertainty increases? Humans love to compare numbers. And, it clearly showed the necessity of never declaring a winner from an A/B/n test. In other words, is the increase in certainty we gain in sampling the 1st fish equal to, less than, or more than the increase in certainty we gain in sampling the 1000th fish? This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. There are three main types of uncertainty you may find yourself trying to communicate to the public. The relative uncertainty gives the uncertainty as a percentage of the original value. It empowers most of today’s business decisions. For instance, if our 95% HDI for a given distribution is [.04 to .66] then our uncertainty will be .62 (.66-.04). Notice how with only 2 samples its a 50–50 chance. These … Notice that before sampling any fish, our distribution is uniform between 0 and 1 where any value in between is equally likely. We can update our beta distribution after every sample and thus quantify our new uncertainty. In Egypt, astronomy was used to predict when the Nile River would flood. Let’s say there’s a rumor of an outbreak of a certain water-borne disease at a nearby lake that has potentially infected the fish. Uncertainty cannot be avoided but it can be reduced by using 'better' apparatus. Information Security professionals must deal with VUCA—volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity—and constantly measure data security risk in a rapidly changing business landscape. Before the advent of the Internet, gathering data was essential to running a modern business. 2 =8cm ∆! To reduce uncertainly in a given situation, you need to gather as much relevant data as possible. What is the chance that the true median of the unknown distribution falls between our highest and lowest sampled values? We love to make charts and graphs out of the data we gather. Data cleaning techniques address data quality and uncertainty problems resulting from variety in big data (e.g., noise and inconsistent data). Let the quantity of interest be x, then, by denition, x ˙x For purposes of this example, let’s assume we sample 15 fish, none of which were infected. Bias is the systematic error associated with calibration values of your standard or artifact. Google Scholar © The Teaching Company, LLC. The bottom line is that the cost associated with uncertainty downstream in the supply chain can be reduced by applying analytics to the already available data. Reduction in Uncertainty after 15 samples. The uncertainty on a measurement has to do with the precision or resolution of the measuring instrument. Now it’s time to randomly sample fish and detect if they are contaminated. Assuming you always guess the color you sample, the chance of guessing the majority color correctly jumps from 50% to 75%, a 25% increase by just sampling 1 ball! Gathering data to make predictions from patterns is not the only In other words, it explicitly tells you the amount by which the original measurement could be incorrect. People who chronically worry usually do so about things that will never happen. Sampling the 10th fish only reduced our uncertainty by 2%. Our natural fascination with data helps us to deal with risk. Classification, regression, and prediction — what’s the difference? Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode.